The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
, first published in Russia in 1903, was said to be the text of a speech given by a Zionist leader outlining a secret Jewish plan to achieve world power by controlling international finance and subverting the power of the Christian church. The manuscript was used to justify hate campaigns against the Jewish people throughout the twentieth century. However, the Protocols
are a complete hoax. The text was adapted from an 1864 work, Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu
, that didn't mention the Jewish people at all.