I’m not quite sure what you mean by certain of your responses, particularly your last one, since I’m not sure who you think I’m referring to. If nothing else I didn’t refer to anyone as courageous, my point was that Orwell drew on more than recent Russian history as examples of tyranny, some examples he experienced personally and some he had learned of from elsewhere, including abuses perpetrated by people we associate with ‘the good guys’. But to give an idea of people we associate with freedom, who have been willing to use torture in the modern era and how that might have affected Orwell’s work, as a young man Orwell experienced first hand how the democratic United Kingdom was happy to use torture and intimidation in its colonies. As to how colonialism fits into Nineteen Eighty Four, unlike in Communist states that at least claim to give equality to peasants and workers while they screw them, in Nineteen Eighty Four this system of alleged equality begins with the lower Party members, while below them are ‘The Proles’, who nobody even appears to pretend have any right to equality, calling them ‘The Proles’ and openly excluding them from party activities, while in the USSR and other Communist societies, there was at least a pretence that the Party was a representative of the Workers and Peasants it actually exploited. Again, I see Nineteen Eighty Four being inspired by a number of tyrannial societies and situations, not being a direct copy of one.
Similarly, Orwell was aware of the abuses comitted by the various Great Powers of the 19th and early 20th Centuries in their colonial empires, with these powers including the Democratic states of Western Europe, the United States and others. His own experiences of colonial abuse, and the others he knew about, contributed to Orwell’s own socialist ideals, which can be gleaned from his books. (Yes, as well as all the other books he ever had published, and his collected essays, I read Homage to Catalonia. In that he specifically rails against the idea of blaming the POUM for the problems of the Republic as alleged, traitors to the cause, mentioning how sickening it is to see a young man lying wounded and sick on the front lines, then read a pamphlet written by someone far behind the lines, or in London or Paris, in which that young man is decried as a traitor. The exact quote escapes me, I think I loaned my copy to someone a while ago, as it isn’t currently on my shelves. The concept of the POUM as turning against the Republic was one heavily, and inevitably, propagated by organisations allied to Stalin and the USSR, who were never going to tolerate a Troskyist party being influential as part of a post war Republican government in the event of a Republican victory.)
I maintain that, as with Animal Farm, Nineteen Eighty Four isn’t a simple history of the USSR with the character names changed. The tyranny created by Ingsoc, or by the Pigs on Manor Farm, is the tyranny created by the USSR, Nazi Germany, Mussolini’s Italy, Franco’s Spain, British India, the Belgian Congo, William Walker’s Nicaragua and many others rolled into one. As such, Room 101 doesn’t represent one room in Lubyanka or Vorkuta, but the tyranny wielded by any state that choses to, or will chose to in future.